Archive for the ‘Expert Views’ Category

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Wednesday, September 16th, 2015

Top 7 Questions to Ask About Your Next Home Since home buyers typically look for their new home in the Spring/Summer months you are most likely to sell your home during the peak gas price months of the year. Being close to mass transit to major cities will ensure strong resale in the future. You need food to survive and the idea of driving 20 minutes each way to the nearest grocery store isn’t going to give your home much resale appeal in the future. Find the nearest grocery stores using online mapping services
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notice that the elasticity of the ball is weakened "it feels rubbery and never quite bounces back ? This is exactly what happens to your skin as a result of prolonged UV A exposure. Both UV B and UV A rays have cumulative affects and coupled together often lead to melanoma skin cancer. Thusly, make sure you understand SPF when purchasing a brand of sunscreen, and do not be fooled by those that claim to deliver a high level of protection. For starters, SPF stands for sun protection factor (or sunburn protection factor ). The way SPF works can be best described by the following example: A SPF 20 sunscreen is only allowing five out of every 100 UV protons to reach your skin. In other words, it is blocking out 95% of the UV rays from reaching your skin. That being said, dermatologist oncologist Sancy A. Leachman, director of the Tom C. Mathews Jr. Familial Melanoma Research Clinic at the Huntsman Cancer Institute, recommends a SPF 15 sunscreen as ideal for daily,
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Tuesday, September 15th, 2015

Field proves a good sport, committing to pre recorded ‘Flying Nun’ SNL lite bit. Opening starting to feel long. Lots of irony in final dance number, though understated and fun. 5:47pm Octavia Spencer to announce Best Supporting Actor. WINNER Christolph Waltz, Django Unchained. Paul Rudd and Melissa McCarthy stumble through some good on paper schtick about animated voice work. Thought she’d offer up more. Nominees for Best Short
Cheap jerseys china Film. Segues quickly into Best Animated Feature Film nominess. WINNER Brave, Mark Andrews and Brenda Chapman. MacFarlane, after lame George Clooney gag, introduces The Avengers stars Robert Downey Jr, Jeremy Renner, Samuel Jackson, Chris Evans and Mark Rufalo to announce Cinematography award. WINNER Claudio Miranda, Life of Pi 6.10pm Did these five rehearse at all? They look like they only just met, let alone star together in a blockbuster. Special FX Oscar goes to. WINNER Life of Pi, Bill Westenhofer, Guillaume Rocheron, Erik Jan De Boer and Donald R. Elliott. Fun idea to play off chatty

event hosted by Homes for Our Troops at the Dallas Gun Club in Lewisville, Texas Friday March 27, 2015. (Andy Jacobsohn/The Dallas Morning
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Bookmark and Share publishes 4 Booklets for LIS Community

Thursday, September 22nd, 2011

The main outputs of for Digital Library interoperability, best practices and reference modelling have been captured in 4 user-friendly booklets to facilitate the community of professionals, students and researchers in the field.
“To make focused progress on interoperability, we need to work against a joint conceptual framework such as the Digital Library Reference Model with its core domains: Content, User, Functionality, Policy, Quality and Architecture and consider the three levels of interoperability – technical, semantic, organisational – within the Interoperability  Framework.” Wolfram Horstmann, CIO Scholarly Information at Bielefeld University, Germany.

The Booklets can be downloaded here.

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RFC Version of the Cookbook released

Thursday, October 14th, 2010 Cookbook - Request for Comment

The demand for powerful and rich Digital Libraries capable of supporting a  broad  variety of interdisciplinary activities and the pressing need to address the data deluge are intimately bound up with the increasing need for “building by re-use” and “sharing”. Interoperability plays a crucial role in responding to these needs. Despite efforts to address interoperability, current solutions are  still limited. The lack of a systematic approach on the one hand and scarce knowledge of  current solutions adopted on the other are among the main impediments to interoperability. What’s more, solutions are  all too often confined to the systems they have been designed for.

Chartered with addressing interoperability challenges, the project and its contributing experts have produced a Request for Comment  version of the Technology and Methodology Digital Library Cookbook. The Cookbook is aimed at collecting and describing a portfolio of best practices and pattern solutions to common challenges face when it comes to developing large-scale interoperable Digital Library systems.

This first Request for Comment (RFC) version of the Cookbook, which should not be considered neither authoritative nor final but rather as a “work in progress” with the aim of enhancing it through external feedback.

Contributing to the Cookbook
Requests for Comments regard both the Cookbook as a whole, as well as on any of its components by leveraging expertise outside the project. The Cookbook main components are:

  • Interoperability Levels&  Digital Libraries
  • Interoperability Model/Framework
  • Interoperability Model in Action
  • Best Practices for organisational, semantic and technical interoperability across six core DL concepts (content, functionality, user, policy, quality and architecture)
  • Interoperability Scenarios

Feedback on the Cookbook is requested until the end of November 2010 and should be sent to To provide feedback in the form of a blog posting, please contact Before sending feedback, we strongly advise you to read the terms and conditions.

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Expert View – Antonella De Robbio on Organisational Interoperability

Thursday, August 12th, 2010

Expert View - Antonella De Robbio

In Digital Libraries (M.I.T. Press, January 2000 – rev.ed June 2005), William Arms defines Interoperability (IOP) as “the task of building coherent services for users when the individual components are technically different and managed by different organizations“.

In other words, Arms sees the problems of getting a wide variety of computing systems to work together as a fundamental challenge to all the aspects of digital libraries.  In its complete form, interoperability would be synonymous with the seamless integration of disparate collections held by different organizations. I believe that this outlines very well organizational interoperability.

Christine Borgman (From Gutenberg to the Global Information Infrastructure: Access to Information in the Networked World, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2000) identifies three main aspects, relevant for digital libraries, relating to interoperability:

  • Getting systems to work with one another in real time
  • Enabling software to work on different systems (portability)
  • Enabling data to be exchanged among different systems

In his article, ‘Interoperability: What is it and Why should I want it?‘ (Ariadne, Issue 24, 2000*), Paul Miller, goes beyond these technical aspects in the belief that interoperability is also related to the ways in which organisations work, particularly attitudes to information. He subdivided the interoperability concept in six aspects:

  1. Technical (communication, transport, storage, representation standards, common user interfaces…).
  2. Semantic (naming of things, authors, creators, means…).
  3. Human/political (decision to make resource less or wide available:ownership is stated here as access control, user profile..).
  4. Inter-community (between disciplines or institutions).
  5. Legal (access requirement, privacy control… between different legislation by different countries).
  6. International (problem of languages, difference in technical approach or working practices.

I see in these six aspects of interoperability the three levels identified by the Policy Working Group because on the technical level we have all issues concerning software, systems, data. On the semantic level we have issues concerning content, with also syntactic interoperability (concerning data) and on the organisational level we could aggregate political/human issues, inter-communities aspects, legal matters, and international scale of differences.

Open systems facilitate standardisation, which is closely interrelated with interoperability. The European Interoperability Framework (EIF) differentiates the three layers of technical, semantic and organisational IOP. The draft of the second version adds the layers of legal IOP and the political context (European Communities 2008). Definition of organisational IOP in different framework concepts [European Journal of ePractice N' 6 - January 2009 - ISSN: 1988-625X]:

Organisational interoperability concerns a broad set of elements of interaction, including business processes, business interfaces such as email, web portals, etc., business events within and between administrations, and “life” events, involving the external parties: businesses and citizens. This aspect of interoperability is concerned with how different organisations such as different Member State Administrations collaborate to achieve their mutually beneficial, mutually agreed eGovernment service-related goals. The partners need to reach detailed agreements on how their processes will interact (synchronize and cooperate) in order to deliver “public services where needed”. [...] “Organisational Interoperability aims at addressing the requirements of the user community by making services available, easily identifiable, accessible and user-oriented. Organisational interoperability occurs when actors agree on the why and the when of exchanging information, on common rules to ensure it occurs safely, with minimal overhead, on an ongoing basis, and then draw up plans to do all these things, and carry them out.”

Three dimensions of organizational interoperability‘,  European Journal of ePractice, N’ 6 – January 2009 – ISSN: 1988-625X

Antonella De Robbio, University Centre for Libraries of the Library System, University of Padua, Italy

* cited for research purposes with the aim of drawing attention to documents deemed to provide key background information for the investigations of Working Group investigations

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Expert View – Edward Fox on Credible Interoperability Requirements

Thursday, August 12th, 2010

Expert View - Edward Fox

In addition to Europeana, it would help to have a number of examples where interoperability is useful. One is the National Science Digital Library in the U.S., where different Pathways and other projects manage sub-areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics education. But while there is OAI-PMH based interoperability, the user experience is far from convenient, for example, never knowing what will come up when a metadata record is brought forth. Nor is it possible to do browsing on more than a very superficial set of facets.
The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations has interesting interoperability issues regarding operations by students, their work with their mentors/examiners, their graduate program administrators, their library, the national library, the NDLTD Union Catalog, etc.

  • Again, how can we browse on topic?
  • What happens when metadata records are incomplete or erroneous?
  • How can over time we deal with all types of content?
  • What about policies of the department, college, university, nation?
  • What about access restrictions, especially if for a fixed time period (e.g., 1 year)?

Another challenging example is the Crisis, Tragedy, and Recovery Network. We have many stakeholder groups with different needs: those affected, their families, their friends, their care givers, emergency workers, volunteers helping, psychiatrists, mental health professionals, health care professionals, administrators, policy makers, students, researchers and so on.  There are many types of contents: papers, news stories, videos, help manuals, emergency preparedness plans, testimonials, blogs, tweets, emails, cell phone messages, reports, law suits, government reports, survey data. This needs to run in a distributed way, working with different languages and cultures, nodes in each location, but sharing data. There needs to be data mining across the distributed collection, browsing, searching, GIS connection, visualization, data analysis, etc.

Edward Fox, Professor of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, U.S.

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Expert View – Sarantos Kapidakis on interoperability, Policy & Quality

Thursday, August 12th, 2010

Expert View - Sarantos Kapidakis

On Interoperability: Policy versus Quality

I am in the Quality Working group, and have found a close relation of our issues with policy:

  • The Policy expresses what the goal of a Digital Library is.
  • The policy can cover technical issues, like the maximum response time of a system.
  • The definition of a realistic policy is a very difficult task.

Quality is the degree that the DL conforms to the specified policy. So, quality serves  to measure the effective behaviour and to compare it with the desired behaviour of the DL. This makes quality and policy to be described using the same language: Quality is described be a pair of the current and the desired behaviour.

On Interoperability: Quality and Policy v.s. other issues
Quality (and policy) are not in parallel but intersect with other issues: There is content quality, functionality quality, architecture quality, etc, that is the other core domains characterising a Digital Library as captured by the DELOS Reference Model.*
Each individual quality could be examined in the examination of its own issue. For example content quality could be examined with content. And the total quality could deal with the combined quality, and the effects of the individual quality factors to the overall quality. For example, how the timeouts (from the system architecture – that make some of the results inaccessible) and the quality of the sources affects the quality of the resutls.
This overall quality is also a very difficult problem.

Sarantos Kapidakis, Professor of Informatics, Department of Archives & Library Services, Ionian University, Corfu, Greece

* The DELOS Digital Library Reference Model is informed by the expertise of the international DL research and scientific community working together in recent years through an initiative spearheaded by DELOS, an EC-funded Network of Excellence. The Reference Model is currently being taken forward by, which is addressing interoperability, reference modelling and best practices from a comprehensive and innovative approach encompassing the six concepts captured in the DELOS Reference Model: content, functionality, user, policy, quality and architecture. Current version of the Reference Model. An further enhanced and consolidated Reference Model will be available this autumn.

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Expert View – Giuseppina Vullo on the European Agenda for Europe

Thursday, August 12th, 2010

Expert View - Giuseppina Vullo

As for Quality, I like the connections between the certification/standardisation actions, cost-effectiveness, and Open Access solutions highlighted in the EC’s Digital Agenda for Europe:
Europe’s public sector expenditure should be used to spur innovation while raising the efficiency and quality of public services. European public authorities must join forces to align regulation, certification, procurement and standardisation in favour of innovation. Public and private partnerships and stakeholder fora are needed that lay out joint technology roadmaps, from research to commercialisation, for harnessing innovation to social need. Knowledge transfer activities should be managed effectively and supported by suitable financial instruments and publicly funded research should be widely disseminated through Open Access publication of scientific data and papers”.

A Digital Agenda for Europe
, European Commission, Brussels, 19 May 2010, p. 23, section 2.5.2.

Giuseppina Vullo, Humanities Advanced Technology & Information Institute (HATII), University of Glasgow

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Expert View – Perla Innocenti on the European Interoperability Framework

Thursday, August 12th, 2010

Expert View - Perla Innocenti

The views expressed by Antonella De Robbio also fit nicely with the three interoperability levels outlined in the European Interoperability Framework (EIF) for eGovernment Services (IDABC, 2004), which we have suggested for the Technology & Methodology Cookbook.*

Also good to read that:

A domain policy could be as a high-level container that specifies performance goals for work processed in resource and actors domains. The domain policy contains all different policies, at different level, organisational, technical and semantic.”

Perla Innocenti, Humanities Advanced Technology & Information Institute (HATII), University of Glasgow – Leader of the Policy Working Group.

* The Cookbook is an innovative artefact that collects and describes a portfolio of best practices, patterns and solutions to common issues faced when developing large-scale interoperable Digital Library Systems (DLSs). It proposes an interoperability model that can be used to characterise – in a systematic way – facets of interoperability challenges, as well as existing, forthcoming solutions and approaches so as to have a framework to select and assess them. A Request for Comment version will be available in late summer 2010. The final version will be informed by feedback from the Digital Library community and published in late 2010.

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Expert Views – Antonella De Robbio on A Digital Agenda for Europe

Thursday, August 12th, 2010

Antonella De Robbio on A Digital Agenda for Europe

Expert View - Antonella De Robbio

I am reading the European Union’s document A Digital Agenda for Europe - COM(2010) 245 – Brussels, 19.05.2010 and I think that it could be useful for the Technology and Methodology Cookbook.*

Take a look at the Key Priority Areas in the Action Plan for the European Digital Agenda. The Agenda outlines seven priority areas for actions; the second one concerning “improving the framework conditions for interoperability between ICT products and services”.
This key priority foresees that it is essential to enhance interoperability between devices, applications, data repositories, services and networks inside a framework where the conditions for interoperability can be improved in various ways. One important means to that end is to ensure that good ICT standards are available and used, notably in public procurement and legislation.
The Digital Agenda also provides some examples:

  • Propose legal measures to reform the rules on implementation of ICT standards to allow the use of certain ICT fora and consortia standards. But the Commission will also address situations in which standards do not help because significant market players do not support them. A further aim is better coordination between public administrations through a new European Interoperability Strategy and Framework to ensure interoperability between eGovernment and other public services across Europe.”

The first priority is defined as “Single Market”, stressing the need to simplifying copyright clearance, management and licensing. In order to reply to this first priority, the Commission, by the end of 2010, will propose a Framework Directive on collective rights management to enhance the governance, transparency and pan European licensing for (online) rights management.
Another point of the Agenda (in the First priority) is make sure consumers are protected in cyberspace by issuing a digital code that summarises the rights of citizens in the online world in a clear and accessible way. Currently many consumers find it difficult to know what their digital rights are, especially when these are scattered across various complex legal documents. I think we have same problems with digital libraries. While this is far worse in the digital world, significant issues could also apply to digital libraries.
A domain policy could serve as a high-level container that specifies performance goals for work processed in resource and actors domains. The domain policy contains all different policies, at different levels, organisatiional, technical and semantic.
Recommendations for investigations:
Key Action 1: Simplify copyright clearance, management and cross-border licensing by:

  • Enhancing the governance, transparency and pan-European licensing for (online) rights management by proposing a framework Directive on collective rights management.
  • Creating a legal framework to facilitate the digitisation and dissemination of cultural works in Europe by proposing a Directive on orphan works, to conduct a dialogue with stakeholders with a view to further measures on out-of print works, complemented by rights information databases.
  • Reviewing the Directive on Re-Use of Public Sector Information, notably its scope and principles on charging for access and use.

Key Action 5: As part of the review of EU standardisation policy, propose legal measures on ICT interoperability to reform the rules on implementation of ICT standards in Europe to allow use of certain ICT fora and consortia standards

Antonella De Robbio, University Centre for Libraries of the Library System, University of Padua, Italy

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* The Cookbook is an innovative artefact that collects and describes a portfolio of best practices, patterns
and solutions to common issues faced when developing large-scale interoperable Digital Library Systems
(DLSs). It proposes an interoperability model that can be used to characterise – in a systematic way – facets
of interoperability challenges, as well as existing, forthcoming solutions and approaches so as to have a framework to select and assess them. A Request for Comment version will be available in late summer
2010. The final version will be informed by feedback from the Digital Library community and published in late 2010.

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