Archive for the ‘Event Blogs’ Category

How to Make a paper football with a 20

Thursday, January 28th, 2016

How to Make a paper football with a 20$ bill

In this tutorial, we learn how to make a paper football with a $20 bill. First, take the bill and fold it in half length wise. Next, take the bill and fold one of the
ray bans sunglasses sale ends into a triangular shape. After this, fold the triangle over and keep doing this
cheap jerseys free shopping until you get to the end. When you reach the end, and tuck the flap on the end into the pocket you created. After this, you can hold the bill up
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fake oakleys Sunglasses with your fingers, and flick it with your other fingers.
replica michael kors outlet You can use any type of bill to make this,
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Moneygami is exactly what you think it is a hybrid of money and origami. Rather than folding origami with your typical origami tissue papers, you can craft yourself something truly special by using money instead.

This particular moneygami tutorial explains how to fold a
wholesale sale oakleys ring from a dollar bill, highlighting the "1 dollar" sign as the "diamond" part. However, any other American bills will work, yet larger bill numbers for $10, $20, $50, or $100 usually get cut off from the top portion of the ring.

Viewers from other countries who may not have American bills handy, so you also learn a way.

In this tutorial, we learn how to make a paper football for 1 dollar. First, grab your paper and fold it in half length wise. Next, make sure the crease is nice and clean, then fold it length wise once more. Now, fold one of the corners up
cheap nfl jerseys into a triangle shape, marking the crease exact. Fold this up again and keep doing this
discount oakleys online until you get to the end. Once you reach the end, fold the other end in twice into the pocket you see.

replica oakleys Crease this, then stand it upright and flick it with your other finger. This will make an easy paper football that you can also make with a dollar bill!.

In this video
replica michael kors tutorial, viewers learn how to make paper footballs. Begin by cutting a straight strip of paper. The wider the width, the larger the football will be.
cheap oakleys Sunglasses Then fold the edge into a right triangle shape and continue folding the strip in the right triangle pattern. Once you have reached the end of the strip, tear off the end at an angle and tuck it in the side of the football. This video also shows viewers how to play a game with the paper
wholesale nba jerseys football. This video will benefit those viewers who are interested in folding origami, and would like to
fake oakleys learn how to make a paper
cheap ray ban outlet football to play.

In this tutorial, we learn how to make a paper football. First, take a piece of copy paper and fold 1/3 of the paper and crease it. Next, do this again until you reach the top of the paper, you should have three folds in total.
wholesale jerseys china Next, fold one side into a triangle
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wholesale fake oakleys keep folding in until you get to the bottom of the paper. Once you reach the bottom, fold the excess paper into the pouch that you created when folding the triangle in. You will end up with a triangle shape. Now, you can hold the paper up with one finger, and flick it with the other to create
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Tuesday, June 23rd, 2015

cheap ray bans Arctic snow geese numbers stabilizing

After more than a decade of devastating huge swaths of Arctic tundra, booming populations of snow geese may have finally stabilized.

But scientists say the teeming flocks, which have turned fertile grasslands into salty mud flats, are still at unheard of levels and have forced wildlife managers to consider a whole new problem.

always wanted more (wildlife) and protected them and saved them and increased their numbers, said Dave Duncan, manager of population conservation for the Canadian Wildlife Service. in the last little while wildlife management is faced with this new conundrum of overabundant species.

do we deal with it? the last 20 years, new farming methods have resulted in better food supply along the big white birds migration routes and their population has responded.

In the 1970s and there were between two million and three million snow geese in central North America. Now there are about 15 million.

Nesting colonies now are so large the birds are destroying their own habitat.

incredible, said the National Wildlife Research Centre Paul Smith, who studies the birds on Nunavut Southampton Island.

the spring, when the ground is wet, they dig up what called the rhizome of the grass, the starchy root. Once they grazed the grass down to such a short level that it not useful to them any more, they dig up this starchy root.

convert an area that was once covered in grass to exposed mud. When this mud is left exposed, the evaporation rate goes up and you get this salt crust on the top. Then it very difficult for plants to recolonize those areas. the Queen Maud Bird Sanctuary along the central Nunavut coast, ground exposed by the birds went from 200 square kilometres in 1988 to about 1,300 square kilometres by 2011.

Years of relaxed hunting rules up and down the migration route didn help
cheap ray bans much.

But something seems to have finally stalled growth, says Environment Canada scientist Ray Alisauskas.

appears that the population may be stabilizing, but not because of reductions in survival of adults. It this density dependence that reduces the number of young per adult. more good news. Duncan said that at least some ravaged colony sites along the west coast of Hudson Bay appear to be recovering.

Still, 15 million snow geese are enough to significantly alter the Arctic ecosystem.

Some birds, such as sandpipers or longspurs, appear to suffer from huge flocks. Others, such as king eider ducks, seem to benefit. Polar bears, forced off the
replica ray bans sea ice earlier and earlier, are learning to stuff themselves on goose eggs.

A cull? The logistics are challenging what do you do with two million dead birds? and the costs are high.

Scientists believe the best plan is to monitor the swollen flocks and to look around the rest of the Arctic to see where else they might colonize.

don know enough about the magnitude and extent of the damage in the Arctic, said Duncan.

Canada position is to more fully understand the extent
discount ray bans of the impact of snow geese on the broader ecosystem, not just at local levels before going that route of a cull, Alisauskas said. want to understand the science a lot better than we do. concept of weighing one species against another, of nurturing nature into sustainability, is a new one for wildlife managers.

hundred years ago, wildlife management was all about saving and conserving populations, Duncan said. in the last decade or two have we got these superabundant species deer in New York, too many ring billed gulls in Toronto, or too many coyotes. knows where to draw the line between natural use and overuse, said Smith.Articles Connexes:

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Tuesday, June 23rd, 2015

4C4 plants and unicellular algae

At around the same time as the nature of photorespiration was becoming clearer Hatch and Slack (1966) demonstrated that in
cheap Michael Kors
fake Michael kors handbags outlet tropical grasses (initially sugar cane) the rst formed products of photosynthetic CO2 xation were the four carbon
cheap Michael Kors handbags acids oxalacetate, malate and aspartate, rather than the 3 PGA formed in the PCR cycle. Furthermore, the carboxylation reaction involved PEP carboxylase and carbon was subsequently transferred to PCR cycle intermediates. As noted earlier (Sections 2.1, 2.2) C4 plants show no apparent CO2 release in light. The explanation lies
discount Michael Kors in their anatomy and multiple carboxylation reactions rather than in the absence of the pathway of photorespiration. Bundle sheath cells are equipped
cheap michael kors with a CO2 concentrating mechanism that
Michael kors handbags outlet favours carboxylation over oxygenation reactions due to increased partial pressure of CO2, while photorespiratory release of CO2 is further prevented through the activity of PEP carboxylase which rexes any respired CO2 formed from the oxygenase function of Rubisco. Unicellular green algae also posed a problem for the simple extrapolation of early models for photorespiratory metabolism in C3 leaves. Although organisms
wholesale Michael Kors handbags outlet such as Chlorella had been used to establish the PCR cycle, and indeed provided much early evidence for effects of O2 on photosynthesis and formation of glycolate in light, they also appeared to lack CO2 evolution in light (Lloyd et al. 1977). In this case the explanation lies in a CO2 concentrating mechanism which effectively increases the internal pool of inorganic carbon (CO2 and HCO3 thereby favouring the carboxylase function of Rubisco over its oxygenase function.2.2 C4 subgroups2.3.4C4 plants and unicellular algae2.4Respiration and energy generation.Articles Connexes:

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Tuesday, June 23rd, 2015

How To Increase Flowerhorn KOK Growth

The objective of every flowerhorn hobbyists is to make the flowerhorn cichlid grow
discount Michael Kors a big kok. This is because that the size of Flowerhorn’s head is the only biggest determinant of quality and some cases, it’s worth. How to increase Flowerhorn KOK is easier once you follow these essential steps.

KOK Gene

The Flowerhorn KOK gene is the single factor which determines
michael kors handbags outlet whether its head will grow into a bigger one. Without this factor, there is nothing you can do to improve the size of its kok. So, the best way here is to check whether the louhan has it or not.

In selecting a juvenile fish, choose one which already has a potential. Professional hobbyists are familiar about this. If you are a beginner with this interest, worry no more because in time you will just enhance your skill naturally.

Do not expect that because male has a big nuchal hump, your buying will need too. It is advisable to spend additional cash and take time to find a best juvenile louhan rather than deal with hindrances later.

For instance, your fish has already begun showing some increase in kok, you need to consider these things in order to enhance it better.

The Quality of the Water

Quality of the water plays a significant role in KOK
fake Michael Kors development. Water condition affects the well being of your health. KOK
fake Michael kors handbags outlet growth is stable and faster if the fish is in its proper health condition. So, you have to develop and keep a daily water change schedule.
fake Michael kors handbags outlet In fact, according to many experts, it is best to make a 30% partial water change at least once a week. Feeding your small fish with a large pallet is also the reason of having a poor
replica Michael Kors handbags water quality. So, as much as possible feed your fish with suitable pallet size.

Tank Size

Selecting the
Michael Kors handbags appropriate tank is important to increase KOK growth. A 30 gallon tanks is the required amount of water when grooming a 2 to 3 inch juvenile. Keeping one cichlid in an individual
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Quality of Food

Utilizing the appropriate food in increasing KOK growth is essential as well. For juveniles, the food should have protein content of 35%.Articles Connexes:

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Monday, June 22nd, 2015

Low Cost Home Business Ideas

More and more people are eschewing the corporate life to become their own boss. They dream of starting their own business, pursuing what they want and having more control of their daily life. They want to start their own home based businesses.

However, a common concern is always the startup resources needed. Some of the would be entrepreneurs are cash strapped or have insufficient funds to start the business they want. Others want to get into the entrepreneurial life without losing the shirts on their back so they prefer to go slow
oakleys sunglasses and start a business with low cost investment.

If you are looking to start a business but don’t have much money, here are low cost business ideas that you can start from your home without breaking your wallet. These businesses have low capital outlay, and often times only need lots of hard work, creativity, dedication, and the right idea. You can start some of these businesses simply with a computer and an Internet access. You can also do these businesses part time or after your 9 to 5 job.

Here are low cost home business ideas:

Freelancing offers extraordinary potential to earn money to those who have marketable skills. You can start this business using the tools and equipment
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Top 5 Tips to Become a Successful Freelancer

How to Start Freelancing and Succeed as a Freelancer

How to Start and Succeed in a Freelancing Career

How to Succeed on Elance

The consulting market continues to explode, as consultants have become a necessity in today’s constantly changing business landscape. As businesses strive to adapt to new technologies and keep
cheap oakley sunglasses wholesale up with the most up to date information, the demand for consultants increasing. Even individuals are seeking the help of consultants, such as choosing the right financial instrument for retirement savings.

To successfully start this business, the 3 important elements are experience, skill, and knowledge in your chosen field. You can start this business on a shoestring budget without spending too much money. Your biggest expense will be
fake cheap oakley sunglasses marketing your consulting services, including paid advertisement, creation of your own website, among others.

How to Start a Successful Consulting Business

How to Be a Consultant and Start a Successful Consulting Business

How to Make Your Consulting Services Stand Out

How to Become a Management Consultant

Coaching is a low cost business that can be rewarding and yield potentially high returns. As a coach, your role is to guide people to achieve success in their careers, relationships and
cheap fake oakleys life. You help identify the problems, challenges and weaknesses they face in their life or in their business, and help them overcome these challenges.

How to Start a Coaching Business

How to Become a Successful Business Coach

If you have a natural flair for sewing and find it easy to turn your hand to any sewing technique, then you should seriously consider starting to make money from your sewing. Sewing is a low cost business that you can start with a sewing machine and other sewing equipment (measuring tape, shearing and cutting scissors, pattern markers, thread, etc.).

Starting a Home Sewing Business

Starting a Sewing Business for the Figure Skating Market

The Business of Sewing Custom Figure Skating Dresses and Costumes

Marketing Your
cheap replica oakleys Sewing Business: Custom Figure Skating Dresses

Tutoring is low cost business that works well for stay at home moms, home schooling parents, even college students who want to earn income on the side. The important element of the tutoring business is your knowledge of the subject matter, and can be started on a shoestring budget. You can tutor students who need help with their academic work. You can also tutor foreigners in studying English or helping them in their studies, which are hindered by language barriers.Articles Connexes:

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Monday, June 22nd, 2015

Starting a Greeting Card Business

Even with the growing threat of e cards, the greeting card
cheap replica oakleys industry remains very strong. consumers mailed more than 2 billion holiday greeting cards and more than 1.2 billion non holiday greeting cards.

The good news is about 1/3 of these cards are created by freelancers. If you have the talent for photography, painting, calligraphy, and writing, the greeting card business may be the business for you.

There are two ways to get into the greeting card design business: to freelance to a greeting card business, or to create and manufacture your own line of greeting cards.

Freelancing to the greeting card companies is the easiest (and cheapest way to go). The advantage of being a freelancer is that you focus on the creation and design of the cards. The disadvantage is that you have to sell your services to a company who may accept or reject you.

There are options to selling your card: you can be a for hire or be a greeting card freelancer (whether you sell the writing, art work or both). You can choose to submit your works to the guys where demand is bigger and more diverse, but where competition is fiercest. Or you can begin slowly by submitting your designs to mid size and smaller
fake oakleys cheap companies, allowing you to learn the ropes in terms of working with editors, tackling assignments, and meeting deadlines.

Work for hire means that your sell your creation for a flat onetime fee with no royalties.

If you are a greeting card artist, you can work in any medium or style that you prefer pastel or oil, abstract or impressionist, illustrator or photographer, sentimental
fake oakley wholesale or serious somewhere out there is a company producing cards, calendars or wrapping papers in need of new designs.

The Greeting Card Associationoffers the following tips for greeting card artists:

Most designers license their work either on a flat fee basis, or for an advance against royalties. Licensing gives a company the right to reproduce your design for a certain use for a specific amount of time in a particular market, such as North America or worldwide. The artist retains ownership of the image and can continue to license it for other uses that don’t conflict. Under a flat fee basis, ownership rights are typically turned over to the publisher. For greeting cards, a flat fee generally ranges between $275 and $500. An advance against a typical 4% 6% royalty may run from $150 to $300. Payments vary from publisher to publisher, as well as by type and complexity of the artwork.

You can also choose to do the entire card concept both the art and writing. If you are doing the entire concept, you may be able to negotiate for a royalty arrangement of about 2 5 percent of gross sales.

If you do well and the greeting card company likes your work as a freelancer, the greeting card company may offer you a retainer contract. This will allow you to receive a monthly advance or higher purchase fees in exchange for an exclusive working relationship. The disadvantage of course is that this limits your opportunity to find other markets and greeting card companies to work with.

The payments and contracts depend on individual companies and their policies.

It is important to remember that greeting card industry is a highly competitive business. Rejection rate is high, often at 80 90 percent. Even a mid size greeting card company can receive as many as 250 submissions per week from
oakley sunglasses discount freelancers, containing an average of 10 15 ideas in each envelope. As soon as a rejection comes back from one company, write a new cover letter and send your samples out to the next one. Don’t take it personally!

How to Find a Greeting Card Publisher

There are a number of resources that you can check to find possible places where you can sell your greeting card products or earn money writing for greeting card companies. Start with the following:

Greeting Card Representatives Directory the Greeting Card Association sells a detailed listing of approximately 100 companies, individual sales reps and distributors, who represent greeting card and stationery publishers and distribute products at the wholesale level to retailers. One trick is to go visit your favorite store such as Target or Wal mart and head to their greeting cards section. Make a note of the publishers of the various cards they carry, then search their websites in your favorite search engine.

You can find the companies that look for greeting card artists in the annual publication Artists Market. It contains listings of companies along with a brief description of their requirements and submission procedures. For rates and other pertinent information, you can also check out The Graphic Artist Guild Handbook. Both books are available in most public libraries.

Start by sending your potential contacts with a letter of introduction. Write the companies (or email if available) that interest you to request for guidelines. Always inquire first before sending samples of your work some companies have their guidelines on their websites. Send only what the company asks for. Don waste your time and energy selling humorous pieces to religious publishers, or photographic work to fine art reproduction houses. Follow the guidelines carefully, and fine tune your submissions based on what the company wants.

Let them know that you wish to develop a freelance writing or graphic creation relationship with them. Send them your resume detailing your background and skills. Enclose
cheap oakley sunglasses a self addressed stamped envelope and request them to send you with their latest needs and guidelines.

Be sure to enclose a SASE (self addressed stamped envelope) with your request. Once the guidelines are received, follow what the company wants. Most companies require samples, and you can send a portfolio of four to six pieces. One important reminder: never send originals; instead simply send prints or high quality Xerox copies.

Starting Your Own Greeting Card Manufacturing Business

If you are able to create the total card artwork and copy you may want to manufacture and sell your cards yourself. You will have total control of
oakley sunglasses discount the product, and you will be receiving the entire profits.

As your own boss, you have total control over what you want to create. No guidelines to adhere to, no editor to follow, and no bureaucracy to go along with.
cheap replica oakleys There is one important drawback, though you are not focused solely on the creation aspect, but you need to take care of the supply chain, production, financing, marketing, selling, bookkeeping and administrative tasks. In addition to being the creator, you will be an entrepreneur who has to wear many hats. Manufacturing your own greetings
replica oakleys card line is not easy, and you need to prepare for the challenges ahead.

You can start by putting together some samples or prototypes of the cards that you intend to make. Determine what type of greeting card you like to create inspirational, sentimental, and humorous. You can begin by creating the type of card that you like to read and receive.

You can offer two products: standard set of pre designed cards and custom made cards. Your clients choose from the various designs that you already created. You simply have to think of efficient ways of mass producing these set of cards. It may look easy and fast when you only have a few to make but if a hundred people orders a hundred different designs you might have problems making them one by one.Articles Connexes:

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Monday, June 22nd, 2015

Tips For The Best Basement Flooring Preparation written

There are few things to consider before selecting and starting a basement flooring preparation. Moreover, you should know what that space is for. Proper answers will assist you to determine the finest flooring material that s recommended for your basement type.

Many different principles can be applied using your Best Basement Flooring. Whether it s a laundry area, a gym or even an underground bedroom, different floor features are required. The flooring does not matter that much if the floor basement is for storage. This is usually the case unless you want to store food for a long period of time.

Once you decide on the floor basement s function, you should make first hand arrangements for your floor installation. Since basements are below ground level, there is likely to be a common problem of moisture or dampness.

Water might not be visible, but moisture will definitely be present if you recognize a smell of mildew or musty scent. In
fake oakley sunglasses cheap concrete, water makes its way up through the floor and the walls. This normally occurs
cheap replica oakleys on porous cement with
cheap oakleys a seal that has not been properly set. You will want to apply waterproof cement so as to prevent the moisture from seeping in.

If you aren t descriptioned with the base concrete acting as your Best Basement Flooring, you might have a sub material to be installed over it to keep the space calm. This decreases the moisture damage likelihood as well.

It assists
oakleys sunglasses the finished floor to feel warmer and smoother. Moreover, it helps in drying the final basement flooring faster in case there s a broken pipe or water
fake cheap oakleys spillage. Nonetheless, as long as it is a dry basement, you don t need to install a subfloor.

Several Best Basement Flooring ideas need different types of materials to be used for installation. If you want to make your basement a plain bedroom, as most
fake oakleys houses do, you should try to think about the occupants.

Your type of
fake oakley sunglasses cork Flooring might consist of inexpensive materials for guests who won t stay for long. This kind of flooring might not need to be regularly maintained like wood or carpet. Plain cement floors are actually good for this kind of rooms.

You should only merge and match the colors of the ceilings and wall so as to make a slightly cool atmosphere because basements are usually enclosed places with no windows.

Porcelain or ceramic tiling is also an economical alternative since they are effortlessly cleaned and maintained.

Furthermore, you don t need to spend a lot of time on the installation. Most experts who know how to fix a ceramic tile floor have a similar opinion on the most significant part preparation. You should make sure that there re no cracks in the cement before installation. If so, they can cause tiles to crack afterwards.

If the tiles are glossy and the grout has been set, you should place everything on the basement flooring where you planned them to be.Articles Connexes:

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Heather Jones on Future scenarios for Open Access

Wednesday, February 16th, 2011

Heather Joseph

Very timely workshop on a topic that is central to the advancing collective mission not only of the library community, but of the academy as a whole, and society at large. Role as a representative of the Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) is to focus on the importance of consistently using Open Access as a compass point that underpins our efforts in the Digital Library and Institutional Repository space, so that initiatives led by the community can achieve the global impact they are intended to deliver. SPARC’s mission is to act as a catalyst for action in creating a more open and equitable system of scholarly communication, expand dissemination of research and scholarship in a way that leverages digital networked technology and ultimately reduces the financial pressure on libraries. The approach to Open Access is holistic:

  • Infrastructure
  • Journals
  • Digital Repositories
  • Legal Framework
  • Copyright/licensing
  • Author education
  • Policy Framework
  • Local/national/international
  • Coalition Building

In particular, SPARC actively works to support emerging “meta policies” that help ensure that full OA becomes a requirement in the research arena, and enable true interoperability to be achieved.

Policy focus

  • Dissemination of results is an essential component of research and the Public’s investment in science.
  • Funders obtain value from their investment only when results are used.
  • Governments would boost innovation and get a better return on their investment in publicly funded research by making research findings more widely available, and by doing so,  they would maximize social returns on public investments.

Emerging trends in the U.S.

U.S. NIH Public Access Policy; – U.S. Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2008; Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grants (TAA – CCCT). We are in the midst of some clear trends on which the community can capitalise, helping to achieve, from a larger policy level, the kind of interoperability promised by Open Access. A very clear message is being sent from the top that Open is the default.

Call to action

  • Set the Default to “Open”
  • Recognition that maximising access & utility maximises benefits
  • Recognition that exceptions will be the rule – “Shades of Open”
  • Community driven approach to  development/implementation
  • National discussions include data, Open Educational Reseouces (OERs), other materials – not just articles
  • Explicitly recognize need for partnerships (public/private and beyond)
  • Culture change needed – incentivize sharing Intellectual property rights must be respected
  • “Good Practices” that will evolve into “Best Practices”
  • “Will to act” increasing as results from active policies become available

The talk is available on the dedicated web page.

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Wolfram Horstmann on the many ways to interoperability

Wednesday, February 16th, 2011

Wolfram Horstmann

Digital libraries are complex systems, intrinsically interdisciplinary and heterogeneous. They involve collaboration support, digital preservation, digital rights management, distributed data management, hypertext, information retrieval, human-computer interaction, library automation, publishing.
Autonomy challenge — degrees of freedom in DLs needed for representing heterogeneous requirements; standards for interoperation.

By open access, we mean its immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, [export], search or link to the [materials], crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software or use them for any other lawful purpose.
The Budapest Declaration (squared brackets indicate changes of the original wording)

European Initiatives

DRIVER: Digital Repository Vision for European Research

  • Construction plans for a distributed DL backbone.
  • Generic infrastructure development & production.

OpenAIRE: Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe

  • Support for European Open Access Policy (pilot phase)
  • Multi-faceted application of DRIVER-results
  • Ultimate goal: Multi-sited Open Access-Digital Library system

Perfect example for OA interoperability challenges with complete walkthrough coverage of all levels, e.g. semantic interoperability. Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) as content agreements. Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) standard as implementation. Addressing technical (transfer) as well as semantic (content) interoperability – with known problems.


  • Interoperability is multi-leveled but a network rather than a layer-model is required
  • Simplicity is the clue for uptake of standards
  • Semantics are core DL interoperability challenge
  • Content (semantic) and functionality (technical) to be decoupled as far as possible – Look deeper into the
  • Focus on semantic interoperability allow DLs/repositories the autonomy they need to meet heterogeneous requirements

Tentative Outlook
Semantic interoperability can be enhanced.(not immediately by semantic web; probably still too powerful and versatile for DLs to encode content) through rigid terminology standards applied on the local site (DL/repository), e.g. authority files for Journal Titles, Names, Institutions,  through adaptive algorithms (unsupervised, dynamic, fault-tolerant…) that tame semantic variability on the central site (specialised service providers)
Separation of semanticists & technologists?

The talk is available on the dedicated web page.

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Peter Burnhill on Open Access in the UK

Wednesday, February 16th, 2011

Peter Burnhill

“A scholar’s positive contribution is measured by the sum of the original data that he contributes. Hypotheses come and go but data remain.”
in Advice to a Young Investigator (1897) Santiago Ramón y Cajal (Nobel Prize winner, 1906)

2 traditions/mentalities co-exist in Information Science:

  1. Document tradition: signifying record-ness
  2. Computational tradition: various uses of formal technique

There are non-convergent mentalities working to build the ‘digital library’: modernisation of library services  and infrastructure to access complex databases.

Emergence of Digital Library: Information Science
“Approaches based on a concern with documents, with signifying records: archives, bibliography, documentation, librarianship, records management, and so forth
“approaches based on uses for formal techniques, whether mechanical (such as punch cards and data-processing equipment) or mathematical (as in algorithmic procedures).”

Semantics of Open Repositories & Interoperability
R is for Repository

  • “university-based institutional repository is a set of services … for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution & its community members. … organizational commitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long-term preservation where appropriate, as well as organization and access … (C. Lynch, 2003)
  • Digital repository differs from other digital collections in that content is deposited, whether by content creator, owner or third party; architecture manages content as well as metadata; repository offers a minimum set of basic services; must be sustainable & trusted, well-supported & well-managed. Digital Repositories Review (R.Heery and S.Anderson, 2005)

O is for Open

  • OA (for publications) not the only ‘open’ policy:
  • OER: Open Educational Resources
  • Open means ‘not closed’: making teaching & learning materials visible
  • Open CourseWare – often as open stack of webpages
  • Open Data
  • Datasets tradition (IASSIST); ‘open/privilege access to databases; open
  • Open Source Software
  • OSS has its own way of doing things

Key questions

  • Are Repositories the (only) way to support an Open Agenda?
  • Is Open really what Repositories are for?
  • Is this usage just intended to help us avoid issues of IP and access management?

Should the focus be on:

  • Interoperability between Repositories?
  • Interoperability of Repositories with the wider Internet?

Interoperability Challenges & Strategies

  • Whose strategy, and towards what purpose?
  • ‘within & for the research & education sector’? Or beyond?
  • For the institution, the UK, EU, global anybody; for the researcher?
  • For the machine as user [“Provider/Consumer”]?

The talk is available on the dedicated web page.

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